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國民經濟和社會發展計劃2019年執行情況與2020年草案的報告(2)(中英對照)

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3. We made an all-out effort to focus on key areas, address inadequacies, and solve challenging problems, with major progress being made in the three critical battles.

(三)全力抓重點補短板解難題,三大攻堅戰取得重大進展。精準脱貧成效顯著,生態環境質量總體改善,金融風險有效防控。

We made substantial progress in targeted poverty alleviation, secured an overall improvement in the quality of the environment, and effectively prevented and controlled financial risks. 1) We made solid progress in poverty alleviation. We worked hard to eliminate poverty through the development of local industries and through boosting employment and consumption. We pooled resources to resolve outstanding issues with regard to ensuring adequate food and clothing, as well as access to compulsory education, basic medical services, and safe housing for poor rural populations in areas of extreme poverty such as the three regions and three prefectures. We helped 7.33 million registered poor households renovate their dilapidated houses, and completed the construction of 35,000 resettlement areas, comprising more than 2.6 million units of housing that can accommodate 9.47 million registered poor people who have been relocated from inhospitable areas, thereby essentially completing the task set in the 13th Five-Year Plan one year ahead of schedule. We continued to increase follow-up industry-led support and employment assistance, and effectively advanced dedicated poverty alleviation efforts. Over the course of the year, China’s rural poor decreased by an additional 11.09 million, with 344 counties having been lifted out of poverty and the poverty headcount ratio having dropped to 0.6%. By the end of 2019, 97% of rural residents living below the current poverty line having lifted themselves out of poverty, and 94% of poor counties having been removed from the poverty list. As a result, regional poverty was largely eradicated.

一是脱貧攻堅工作紮實推進。強化產業、就業、消費等扶貧,集中力量攻堅“三區三州”等深度貧困地區“兩不愁三保障”突出問題。累計支持733萬户建檔立卡貧困户實施農村危房改造。累計建設易地扶貧搬遷安置區3.5萬個、住房260餘萬套,可安置947萬建檔立卡易地扶貧搬遷人口,提前一年基本完成“十三五”規劃建設任務。加大後續產業扶持和就業幫扶力度,定點幫扶等工作有力推進。全年農村貧困人口減少1109萬,貧困縣摘帽344個,貧困發生率降至0.6%。截至2019年底,97%現行標準的貧困人口實現脱貧,94%的貧困縣實現摘帽,區域性整體貧困基本得到解決。

2) We made strong headway in both environmental protection and pollution prevention and control. We made solid progress in keeping our skies blue, our waters clear, and our land pollution-free. The annual average concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) decreased by 2.4% in the cities at and above prefecture level that fell short of the national standards. The proportion of surface water with a quality rating of Grade III or higher stood at 74.9%. The non-fossil fuel share of the total energy consumption reached 15.3%, with this target set in the 13th Five-Year Plan being met one year ahead of schedule. The central government launched the second round of environmental inspections as scheduled. We put in place the system of river chiefs and lake chiefs. The environmental improvement of county-level water sources was essentially completed and nearly 87% of black, malodorous bodies of water in cities at or above prefecture level were cleaned up. We strictly blocked illegal waste imports, and registered a year-on-year reduction of 40.4% in solid waste imports. We also carried out trials for a No-Waste Cities initiative. We implemented the emissions permit system at a faster pace, and introduced the Catalog of Green Industries (2019). We launched initiatives to control both the total amount and the intensity of energy consumption, and to promote nationwide water conservation and eco-friendly lifestyles. Energy consumption per unit of GDP fell by 2.6%, and water consumption per 10,000 yuan of GDP dropped by 6.1%. We improved the system for protecting natural forests, allowed more marginal farmland to return to forest and grassland, and took coordinated steps to control desertification and prevent the spread of stony deserts. We launched trials of comprehensive ecological compensation. Carbon dioxide emissions per unit of GDP decreased by 4.1%.

二是生態環境保護和污染防治有力推進。堅決打好藍天、碧水、淨土保衞戰,細顆粒物(PM2.5)未達標地級及以上城市年均濃度下降2.4%,地表水質量達到或好於Ⅲ類水體比例為74.9%。非化石能源佔能源消費比重達15.3%,提前一年完成“十三五”規劃目標。啓動第二輪中央生態環境保護例行督察。落實河長制湖長制。縣級水源地生態環境問題整治基本完成,地級及以上城市黑臭水體消除近87%。堅定不移推進禁止洋垃圾入境,全國固體廢物進口量減少40.4%。啓動“無廢城市”建設試點。加快實施排污許可制度。發佈綠色產業指導目錄(2019年版)。開展能源消耗總量和強度“雙控”行動、國家節水行動、綠色生活創建行動。單位國內生產總值能耗下降2.6%,萬元國內生產總值用水量下降6.1%。完善天然林保護制度,擴大退耕還林還草,實施荒漠化、石漠化綜合治理。啓動生態綜合補償試點。單位國內生產總值二氧化碳排放量降低4.1%。

3) We effectively prevented and controlled major risks in the financial sector. We made steady efforts to defuse risks related to the hidden debts of local governments and the debts of enterprises, and succeeded in curbing excessively rapid growth of the macro-leverage ratio. We effectively addressed the disorderly growth of shadow banking, made significant progress in defusing risks in some high-risk financial institutions, particularly in small and medium-sized banks, and addressed the risks related to internet finance and other financial risks that impact a large number of people. The operations of the financial market were stable and orderly, and the foreign exchange market and the RMB exchange rate remained generally stable, while the financial regulatory system was further improved.

三是金融等領域重大風險得到有效防控。地方政府隱性債務和企業債務風險處置穩妥推進,宏觀槓桿率過快上升勢頭得到遏制。影子銀行無序發展得到有效治理,部分高風險金融機構特別是中小銀行“精準拆彈”取得階段性成果,互聯網金融等涉眾風險得到治理。金融市場運行平穩有序,外匯市場和人民幣匯率總體穩定。金融監管制度進一步完善。

4. We pursued the innovation-driven development strategy and enhanced our capacity for scientific and technological innovation. We deepened reform of the management system for science and technology, and intensified support for basic research and application-oriented basic research. China’s spending on R&D amounted to 2.19% of GDP, while the contribution made by advances in science and technology to economic growth hit 59.5%.

(四)深入實施創新驅動發展戰略,科技創新能力進一步提升。不斷深化科技體制改革,大力支持基礎研究和應用基礎研究,全國研究與試驗發展經費投入強度達2.19%,科技進步貢獻率提高到59.5%。

1) The pace of independent innovation increased. We saw a constant stream of significant scientific and technological advances throughout the year: The Chang’e-4 lunar probe successfully landed on the far side of the moon; the deployment of the core constellation of the Beidou-3 global navigation system was completed; the launch of commercial 5G operations was brought forward; the Long March-5 Y3 carrier rocket was successfully launched; and China’s first domestically built aircraft carrier Shandong was commissioned. We continued implementing major projects of the Sci-Tech Innovation 2030 Agenda and major national science and technology programs, and started construction on a number of major science and technology infrastructure projects such as the High Energy Photon Source. We made steady progress in pilot reforms of comprehensive innovation, with 169 preliminary trials being completed. Significant headway was made in turning Beijing and Shanghai into innovation centers for science and technology, and the initiative to develop the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area into an international science and technology innovation center got off to a smooth start. We expedited the construction of comprehensive national science centers in Huairou in Beijing, Zhangjiang in Shanghai, and Hefei in Anhui, along with the planning for another such center in the Greater Bay Area.

一是自主創新步伐加快。重大科技成果持續湧現,嫦娥四號成功在月球背面着陸,北斗三號全球系統核心星座部署全面完成,5G商用加速推出,長征五號遙三運載火箭成功發射,首艘國產航母“山東艦”正式列裝。科技創新2030-重大項目和國家科技重大專項深入實施,高能同步輻射光源等一批國家重大科技基礎設施開工建設。全面創新改革試驗穩步推進,169項先行先試改革舉措基本完成。北京、上海科技創新中心建設取得重要進展,粵港澳大灣區國際科技創新中心建設順利起步。北京懷柔、上海張江、安徽合肥等綜合性國家科學中心建設全面加速,大灣區綜合性國家科學中心加快謀劃建設。

2) We stepped up our efforts to foster new drivers of growth. We started construction of a national pilot zone to boost the innovation-driven development of the digital economy. We coordinated efforts to advance major IT application projects, beginning with a number of major projects to build an IT-enabled government as required in the 13th Five-Year Plan. We also undertook projects for the development of clusters of strategic emerging industries.

二是新動能加速培育。啓動國家數字經濟創新發展試驗區建設。統籌推進重大信息化工程建設,實施一批“十三五”重大政務信息化工程。戰略性新興產業集羣發展工程深入實施。

3) We continued to inspire enthusiasm for innovation, business startups, and creativity. We piloted the contract system for research project funding, along with the “green channel” program. We ensured the success of 2019 National Entrepreneurship and Innovation Week. By the end of 2019, more than 225,000 new- and high-tech enterprises and more than 151,000 small and medium-sized sci-tech businesses had been established across the country, with a year-on-year increase of approximately 24% and 15% respectively. China rose to 14th place in the Global Innovation Index 2019, with an average of at least 10,000 new businesses being registered per day in 2019.

三是創新創業創造活力持續增強。開展科研項目經費使用“包乾制”和“綠色通道”改革試點。成功舉辦2019年全國雙創活動周。截至2019年底,全國高新技術企業超過22.5萬家,科技型中小企業超過15.1萬家,分別增長約24%和15%。我國創新指數世界排名提升至第14位,企業數量日均淨增1萬户以上。

5. We thoroughly and effectively implemented major strategies and achieved higher levels of coordination between urban and rural development and the development of different regions. We promoted effective implementation of key strategies regarding rural revitalization and coordinated regional development, improved the quality of new urbanization, and reduced the disparities in development between rural and urban areas and between regions.

(五)落實落細重大戰略,城鄉區域發展協調性不斷增強。推動鄉村振興和區域發展重大戰略落地見效,着力提升新型城鎮化質量,努力縮小城鄉區域發展差距。

1)We stepped up the implementation of the rural revitalization strategy. Work began on the major projects, plans, and actions defined in the Strategic Agenda for Rural Revitalization. Rural areas saw the continuous emergence of new forms of business, including rural tourism and farm-based recreation. We continued to promote reduced yet more efficient use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides. Efforts to recycle resources from livestock and poultry waste and crop straw were stepped up. With notable improvements in rural roads and water and power supply and the full launch of the campaign to control pollution in agriculture and in rural areas, the improvement of rural living environments was accelerated. Efforts to develop rural culture and improve rural governance were intensified.

一是鄉村振興戰略加快實施。鄉村振興戰略規劃確定的重大工程、重大計劃和重大行動啓動實施。鄉村旅遊、休閒農業等新業態不斷湧現。持續推進農藥化肥減量增效,加快推進農作物秸稈、畜禽糞污資源化利用。農村水電路等條件顯著改善,農業農村污染治理攻堅戰全面展開,農村人居環境整治加快推進。鄉村文化建設和鄉村治理深入推進。

2) The quality of new urbanization was steadily increased. We carried out policies and measures for building sound institutions and mechanisms for integrated urban-rural development. Over 10 million people from rural areas were granted urban residency, constituting significant progress toward the goal of granting urban residency to 100 million people without local household registrations. The percentage of permanent urban residents reached 60.60%, while the percentage of registered urban residents reached 44.38%. The ability of principal cities and city clusters to attract people to them gradually increased, and modern metropolitan areas grew in an orderly fashion. Breakthroughs were made in elevating very large towns to cities, while the development of towns with distinct features was further regulated.

二是新型城鎮化質量穩步提高。建立健全城鄉融合發展體制機制的政策措施印發實施。1000多萬農業轉移人口落户城鎮,1億非户籍人口在城市落户工作取得重大進展,全國常住人口城鎮化率達60.60%,户籍人口城鎮化率達44.38%。中心城市和城市羣人口集聚能力逐步提升,都市圈建設有序推進,特大鎮設市取得突破,特色小鎮發展進一步規範。

3) We accelerated the development of new mechanisms for coordinated regional development. Policy frameworks for supporting the development of the western region, the revitalization of northeast China, the rise of the central region, and the spearhead development of the eastern region were further improved. Steady and substantial progress was made in promoting the coordinated development of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, with construction starting on Xiongan New Area. Positive results were achieved with regard to addressing prominent environmental issues in the Yangtze Economic Belt. The policies for the development of the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area were further refined. The Plan for Integrated Development of the Yangtze River Delta was published, and construction began on a demonstration zone for eco-friendly development in the delta. We began drafting the plan for the ecological conservation and high-quality development of the Yellow River basin. We stepped up work on revitalizing and developing regions with unique features such as old revolutionary base areas, areas with large ethnic minority populations, border areas, and impoverished areas. One-to-one assistance programs were also scaled up. Widespread construction efforts began on demonstration zones for developing the marine economy.

三是區域協調發展新機制加快構建。支持西部大開發、東北振興、中部崛起、東部率先的政策體系更加完善。京津冀協同發展有力有序推進,雄安新區轉入施工建設階段。長江經濟帶生態環境突出問題整改和生態環境污染治理成效顯著。粵港澳大灣區建設規劃政策體系進一步完善。長三角區域一體化發展規劃綱要印發實施,生態綠色一體化發展示範區啓動建設。黃河流域生態保護和高質量發展規劃綱要啓動編制。老少邊貧等特殊類型地區加快振興發展,對口支援有力推進。海洋經濟發展示範區建設全面啓動。

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